tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-35187314.post3802962274862611094..comments2022-05-28T05:00:08.175-04:00Comments on Physics Buzz: Bourbon Street Physicistsfr@kyhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/17860093966804017373noreply@blogger.comBlogger1125tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-35187314.post-20633112159597749342008-04-01T12:35:00.000-04:002008-04-01T12:35:00.000-04:00Entropy. / My opinion /.1. Henry Poincare named t...Entropy. / My opinion /.<BR/>1. <BR/>Henry Poincare named the conception of "entropy " <BR/>as a " surprising abstract ".<BR/>2.<BR/> L. Landau (Dau) wrote:<BR/>" A question about the physical basis of the <BR/>entropy monotonous increasing law remains open ". <BR/>3.<BR/>The famous mathematician John von Neumann said to <BR/>"the father of information theory" Claude Shannon:<BR/> " Name it "entropy" then in discussions<BR/> you will receive solid advantage, because<BR/>nobody knows, what "entropy" basically is ".<BR/>=============..<BR/>1.<BR/>Between 1850 - 1865 Rudolf Clausius published a paper<BR/> in which he called " The energy conservation law" as<BR/> " The first law of thermodynamics". But in our nature the<BR/> heat always flows from the higher temperature to the<BR/> lower one and never back. In our everyday life we don't see<BR/> the heat itself rises from cold to hot. So, it seemed that<BR/> in thermodynamics " The energy conservation law" <BR/>wasn’t kept, this law was broken. But Clausius had another <BR/>opinion. He thought: I know people believe that this process is <BR/>irreversible, but I am sure that " The energy conservation law" <BR/> is universal law and it must be correct also for thermodynamic<BR/>process. So, how can I save this law ? <BR/>Probably, in the thermodynamic process there is something<BR/> that we don't know. Maybe, there is some degradation<BR/> of the total energy in the system which never disappears .<BR/>Perhaps, there is some non-useful heat, some unseen process , <BR/>some unknown dark energy , some another form of potential<BR/> energy/heat itself which can transform heat from the cold <BR/> body to the warm one. I will call this conception as " entropy"<BR/> and as it is not a law I take it as " The second principle<BR/> of thermodynamics " which says that " the entropy of an isolated<BR/>system always increases ". Another version: " No process is possible <BR/> in which the only result is the transfer of heat from a hotter to a <BR/>colder body. It is possible some reversible process which is<BR/> unknown now ." <BR/>2.<BR/>Between 1870 - 1880 Ludwig Boltzmann said:<BR/>" Clausius is right. But I can add more to his entropy conception.<BR/>First. <BR/>According to Classic physics when an isolated thermodynamic<BR/> system comes to a thermal equilibrium all particles stop their<BR/> moving. From one hand it is correct. But the system cannot be<BR/> at thermal equilibrium (in the state of death) all the time.<BR/> The situation in the system must change.<BR/>Therefore I say that at the thermal equilibrium the entropy <BR/>(some unknown dark/potential energy ) of the system will <BR/>reach maximum and as a result , the thermal equilibrium<BR/> of the system will change.<BR/>Second. <BR/>I don't know how exactly the thermal equilibrium of the system<BR/> changes. But I can give probabilistic / statistical interpretation <BR/>of this changing process. I can write " The second principle of<BR/> thermodynamics" by a formula: S= k log W and this formula<BR/>says:" the entropy of the system is the collective result of<BR/>mechanical motions of all the particles (k)."<BR/>I will call it as " The second law of Thermodynamics."<BR/>3<BR/>In 1900 Max Planck said:<BR/>Clausius and Boltzmann are both right.<BR/>But all my life I worked almost exclusively on problems<BR/> related to thermodynamics. And I am sure that the " The second<BR/> law of Thermodynamics" , concerning entropy, is deeper and it<BR/> says more than is generally accepted. I am sure the Boltzmann's <BR/>probabilistic /statistical version of "The second law of <BR/>Thermodynamics " is not completed, is not final.<BR/>Please, look at the graph of the radiation curves of the " black body".<BR/>They are very similar to those curves which are calculated <BR/>by Maxwell for the velocity (i.e. energy) distribution of gas<BR/>molecules in a closed container. Could this black body radiation<BR/>problem be studied in the same way as Maxwell's ideal gas....<BR/>...electromagnetic waves ? This problem of connection between<BR/>radiation of black body and Maxwell's Electrodynamics theory<BR/>doesn't give me peace. Maxwell's theory can tell everything <BR/>about the emission, absorption and propagation of the radiation,<BR/> but nothing about the energy distribution at thermal <BR/>equilibrium. What to do? How to be ?<BR/>After trying every possible approach using traditional <BR/>classical applications of the laws of thermodynamics<BR/>I was desperated. And I was forced to consider that the <BR/>relation between entropy, Boltzmann's probability version<BR/>and Maxwell's theory is possible to solve by suggestion ,<BR/> that energy is radiated and absorbed with discrete <BR/> individual quanta particle (E= hv). So, now I must write<BR/> " The second law of Thermodynamics " by formula:<BR/> hv = k log W.<BR/>But I was so surprised and sceptical of such interpretation the<BR/> entropy that I spent years trying to explain this result<BR/>in another , less revolutionary way. It was difficult for me<BR/> to accept this formula and to understand it essence . <BR/>It was hard for me to believe in my own discovery. <BR/> ==================..<BR/>My conclusion.<BR/>How to understand this formula?<BR/>Which process does formula (hv = k logW ) describe ?<BR/>1.<BR/>In 1877 Boltzmann suggested that the energy/mass state <BR/>of a physical system (of ideal gas ) could be discreted.<BR/> This idea was written with formula: R/N=k. It means:<BR/> there are particles with energy/mass state (k) in physical <BR/>system of ideal gas . They dont move, they are in the<BR/> state of rest. <BR/>2.<BR/> In 1900 Planck followed Boltzmann's method of dividing.<BR/>Planck suggested that energy was radiated and absorbed <BR/>with discrete "energy elements" - " quantum of energy"- <BR/>- " Planck's action constant"- (h) . Its energy is: E=hv.<BR/>3.<BR/>In which reference frame does this process take place?<BR/>In thermodynamical reference frame of ideal gas and <BR/>black body (Laue called this model as Kirchhoff,s vacuum).<BR/>Now it is considered that these models are abstract ones which <BR/>do not exist in nature. On my opinion these models explain<BR/> the situation in the real Vacuum (T=0K) very well.<BR/>4.<BR/> For my opinion the formula (hv = k logW ) says: <BR/>a)<BR/>The reason of " entropy" , the source of thermal equilibrium's<BR/>fluctuation , the source of Vacuum fluctuation is an action of <BR/>the particle /electron, which has energy: E = hv.<BR/>b)<BR/>The process of Vacuum fluctuation depends on collective <BR/>motions of all particles (k) and will be successful if enough<BR/> statistical quantity of Boltzmann's particles ( k logW)<BR/> surround the electron.<BR/>c)<BR/>Which process does the formula (hv = k logW ) say about ?<BR/>This formula explains the beginning conditions of gravitation, <BR/>the beginning conditions of star formation.<BR/>( The article of star formation is posted on this site.)<BR/>d)<BR/>One physicist said :" The entropy is only a shadow of energy“.<BR/>Maybe now somebody can understand why entropy is a shadow.<BR/>And maybe now somebody will understand why <BR/>" The Law of conservation and transformation of energy"<BR/> is also correct for thermodynamic system. <BR/>===========..<BR/>P.S.<BR/> It took me only two months to write this brief article.<BR/>Plus about three years searching for the key of entropy problem.<BR/>Plus about twenty-three years trying to understand the essence<BR/>of physical laws and formulas. <BR/>==============.. <BR/> Best wishes. <BR/>Israel. <BR/><BR/>http://www.socratus.com <BR/>http://www.wbabin.net/socratushttps://www.blogger.com/profile/08712165077534755618noreply@blogger.com