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Judo Physics: Ranking Martial Arts Throws

Martial arts films' jaw-dropping fight scenes may leave you wondering if the laws of physics apply to Bruce Lee or Jet Li. Quite the opposite is true in real life, and an entire field of research specializes in understanding the biomechanics behind martial arts moves.

The martial art and Olympic sport of Judo – meaning "gentle way" – pits two competitors against each other in a battle of throwing, takedowns, and grappling maneuvers. Judo's throws rank among its best studied moves, where force and impulse (both the physical and mental property) play a key role. In preparation for the upcoming summer Olympic Games in London, here's a look into some of the physics behind Judo experts' impressive throwing skills.

Image Credit: Australian Paralympic Committee

To measure the forces and impulse – the change in momentum – researchers have typically relied on a set of video cameras focused on Judo practitioners in a controlled setting. In one of the most widely-cited studies (PDF) of this sort from 2006, four black belt throwers (called tori) and one "faller" (called uke) were filmed performing a variety of standard Judo throws.

With this method, the researchers hoped to better understand which throws worked best for certain individuals. They measured impulse measurements for each participants' center of mass while undergoing three different kinds of throws.

Harai-goshi (Hip Throw)

Average Force: 158.9 Newtons over 0.63 seconds
Average Impulse: 100.1 Newton-seconds

This move created one of the largest impulses on the "fallers" body. Consequently, the researchers behind the study have labeled it a "power move" most suitable for larger individuals. For this move, the high-momentum thrower collides with the faller and abruptly loses momentum, leading to a relatively high impulse.

Seoi-nagi (Shoulder Throw)

Average Force: 120.4 Newtons over 0.74 seconds
Average Impulse: 89.0 Newton-seconds

The shoulder throw had the lowest impulse of the three moves because the thrower maintains more of his momentum throughout the move. When there's a smaller change in momentum, the impulse is lower. The authors concluded that this move suited a shorter, speedier and nimbler thrower who can fit under their opponent.

Osoto-gari (Leg Throw)

Average Force: 156.3 Newtons over 0.73 seconds
Average Impulse: 113.0 Newton-seconds

Together with the hip throw, the leg throw belongs to the class of power moves suited for large, powerful throwers. This move also had one of the best accompanying videos that I could find.

All of the data for the three throws came from this Journal of Sports Science and Medicine research paper by Rodney T. Imamura, Alan Hreljac, Rafael F. Escamilla and W. Brent Edwards of Sacramento State University. Check out the research for more about the biomechanics behind these throws, and make sure to tune in for some Judo this summer in London.


If you want to keep up with Hyperspace, AKA Brian, you can follow him on Twitter.


  1. Judo Quebec recently re-inducted one of its two recently-promoted 9th dans into its Hall of Fame. They mentioned his "devastating o-soto-gari" in the speech. He fought in -80kg. The story I heard about it was that when he had just come to Quebec, he would tour the province and send people to the hospital...

    O-soto works for me sometimes. I used to do seoi-nage more, but ko-uchi-makikomi is most effective for me these days.

  2. Hello,
    Very interesting!! Do you know if there is a more recent paper on the subject? or on a different martial art?

  3. Hello Loic,

    There was a recent overview of the biomechanics behind Judo published on You can check it out at the following link:

  4. Hi, Some excellent examples of good Judo here.
    Although, one aspect of the article i feel was not completely correct. Although Bruce Lee / Jet Li's films may not be real fight footage. If you research Bruce Lee for example, you will find that Bruce Lee was extremely scientific and was also well known for his real life fighting skills as well as his scientific analysis.

    Bruce Lee also trained in Judo with the well known US Judo Champion and wrestler Gene Le Bell. Who was also known to have fought one of the earliest MMA fights in US history.

    The area of biomechanics is still underdeveloped and needs more research not only within the martial arts but also in Judo. Although I believe the Kodokan Tokyo has one of their many floors dedicated to research and history to Judo. Worth investigating perhaps.

    I would also hope that with the development of sophisticated motion detectors which are worn on the body, their must be ample technology available to make extremely accurate data collection and analysis of todays top martial artists.

    I guess such a project needs funding and a commercial application. Although with the world of martial art computer games, you would think that there would be ample demand. I mean, imagine a game where you fight a digital version of the real people in any sport. How awesome that would be!

  5. gene lebel really didn't teach bruce that much, the time they spent around eachother was on a set of a tv show so gene showed him a few things, but most of his judo training was from one of his own students


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